A mineral is a naturally occurring in the earth’s crust inorganic and organic substance, and it is extracted from ore deposits of different genesis. Ore deposit is an accumulation of mineral that can be used in economy depending on its size, quality and location. Ore deposit may occur on the earth’s surface (opencast mine) or deep in the earth (closed or “blind” mine). Distinctions are made between endogenous, exogenous or metamorphic ore deposits, depending on the terms of their origin.  

Endogenous ore are formed in the earth's crust as a result of differentiation and localization of substances caused by interior sources of energy of the earth. The following groups are included in this type of ore: magmatic, pegmatite, carbonatite, skarn, pneumatolytic, and hydrothermal ores
Exogenous ore are formed on the earth surface or close the surface by chemical, bio-chemical or mechanical accumulation of minerals caused by sources of energy exterior to the earth's surface. This type of ore includes denuded and sedimentary ore.

Metamorphic ore are formed as a result of regional or local metamorphism of earlier formed mineral deposits or rocks.

Almost all known types of minerals can be found in Georgia. They can be grouped by their economic use:

raw materials for the development of steel industry (manganese), non-ferrous metallurgy and gold mining – manganese, copper, gold, silver, lead, zinc, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, selenium, tellurium, germanium, mercury, indium, sulfur. Refractory clay, dolomite, limestone, mold sands, chalcedony, spongolit, peat, lime.

raw materials for chemical and food industries, agrochemical industry and other sectors – acid-fast andesite, barite ores, bentonite clay, diatomite, calcite, earth colors, talc, and zeolite.

raw materials for building industry - cement materials, lime, clays, facing materials, melting basalt etc.

raw materials for ceramic production – kaolin, ceramic clay, rhyolite, trachyte, pegmatite

raw materials for jewelry and ornamental work - agate, marble onyx, jet, color obsidian, jasper, decorative dolerite, actinide lamprophyre

raw materials for glass production – feldspar sand, groundwater (both fresh and ultra-fresh).  Georgia's demand for the product is only 40% of the total production

Drinking mineral water and therapeutic mineral waters - the scope of use of these waters is very wide due to their taste and medical properties

geothermal waters – are suitable for medical and domestic purposes, as well as for the use in energy. Total balance energy potential of geothermal waters exceeds 300 megawatts.

Most of Georgian mineral resources are competitive in the world market. Extraction of mineral resources contributes to the economic development of the country. However, it may cause serious damage to the environment in terms of its degradation due to unsustainable practice of mining operations. Abandoned mines require special attention. The abandoned mines cause environmental problems - seeping into the ground chemicals (e.g. mercury and arsenic) contaminate soil and groundwater. These pollutants may cause direct harm to the health of the population of nearby villages and the inhabitants of the basin of the rivers’ lower flow, water consumers and nearby communities. These sites often pose a threat to biodiversity, and other natural resources.
November 2020
გამოკითხვა თქვენი აზრით, აღმოფხვრის თუ არა დანაგვიანების პრობლემებს დაწესებული სანქციები?